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BIOC34H3 Chapter Notes -Nfkb1, Pulmonary Function Testing, Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

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BGYC34
PhysioEx Lab 7
Respiratory Systems Mechanics Marking Scheme
Part 1
Complete PhysioEx lab #7. Hand-in all of the pages associated with the lab. Note that
there are 5 activities to be completed. You DO NOT need to hand in the histology review
supplement. (5 marks)
MARKING NOTE: Ten of the questions (activities) below are each worth 0.5 marks.
Activity 1: Measuring Respiratory Volumes
Compute the minute respiratory volume (i.e., minute ventilation) using the following
formula:
MRV = TV X BPM = 500 ml X 15 breaths/min = 7.5 L/min.
Does expiratory reserve volume (ERV) include tidal volume (VT)?
No, ERV is the amount of air that can be exhaled following a normal tidal
exhalation. **(0.5 marks)**
Activity 2: Examining the Effect of Changing Airway Resistance on
Respiratory Volumes
Copy the FEV1 and vital capacity values from the computer screen to the chart below and
then calculate the FEV1 (%) by dividing the FEV1 volume by the vital capacity and
multiplying by 100. Record the FEV1(%) (also called FEV1/FVC) in chart 1.
Radius (mm) FEV1FVC FEV1 (%)
5.0 3541 4791 73.9
4.5 2303 3143 73.3
4.0 1422 1962 72.4
3.5 822 1150 71.4
3.0 436 621 70.2
**(0.5 marks)** (for completing the table)
Explain your answer (should read explain your observations)
FEV1, FVC and FEV1(%) all decrease as airway radius decreases because airway
diameter (radius) has decreased and it is harder to exhale (increased resistance). This is
akin to an obstructive lung disease. **(0.5 marks)**
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Activity 3: Examining the Effect of Surfactant
The first two questions in this section are out of place. They should have been in activity
2.
What happened to the FEV1 (%) as the radius of the airways was decreased?
FEV1 (%) decreased as the radius of the airway was decreased.
How has the air flow changed compared to the baseline run?
Airflow decreased as the radius of the airway was decreased.
Premature infants often have difficulty breathing. Explain why this might be so.
Premature infants don’t produce enough surfactant making it hard for the lungs
to expand.
Activity 4: Investigating Intrapleural Pressure
What happened to the lung in the left side of the bell jar?
The lung deflated.
How did the pressure in the left lung differ from that in the right lung?
The pressure in the left lung was zero. Pressure in the right lung did not change.
Explain your reasoning.
The left lung deflated because the intrathoracic pressure was equal to
atmospheric pressure. **(0.5 marks)**
How did the total air flow in this trial compare with that in the previous trial when both
pleural cavities were intact?
Total flow was reduced by half.
What do you think would happen if the two lungs were in a single large cavity instead of
separate cavities?
Both lungs would have deflated due to equal pressure inside and outside the
thoracic cavity.** (0.5 marks)**
Did the deflated lung re-inflate?
No.
Explain your answer.
The left lung remained deflated because the intrathoracic pressure was never
restored to its normal value. The lung chamber remained equalised with
atmospheric pressure. **(0.5 marks)**
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