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Evidence that natural selection can produce evolutionary change. Evidence that species change through time (1) evolution under domestication (a) domesticated organisms change through artificial selection = evolve. For example, dogs descend from wild gray wolves. (b) many varieties from a single ancestor all types of fowls came from the red jungle fowl. Cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower all come from the mustard plant. Dogs: high rate of phenotypic evolution arises from extensive variation in tandem repeat loci associated with development genes. In both artificial selection and natural selection there is variation in populations, some of the variation is heritable, and different variants produce different numbers of offspring. The difference between the two is the agent of selection. In artificial selection it is human breeders and there is conscious intent. In natural selection it is the environment (both biological and physical factors) and there is no conscious intent.

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