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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Study Guide

Biological Sciences
Course Code

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Physiology: Moving Beyond the Genome
- biome ± entire community of organisms living in a major ecological region, such as the
marine biome or the desert biome
- genome ± all the genes in an organism
- proteome ± all the proteins in that organism
- metabolomics ± study of metabolic pathways
- interactomics ± study of protein-protein interactions
- Physiome Project
o Organized international effort to coordinate molecular, cellular, and physiological
information about living organisms into an Internet database
o Is an ambitious undertaking that promises to integrate information from diverse
areas of research so that we can improve our understanding of the complex
processes we call life
Physiology is an Integrative Science
- integrate ± to bring varied elements together to create a unified whole
- current challenge in physiology Æ integrating information from different body systems
into a cohesive picture of the living human body
- Emergent properties ± properties that cannot be predicted to exist based only on
o Not a property of any single component of the system and is greater than the
o Eg Æ emotion, intelligence, and other aspects of brain functions ( these cannot be
predicted from knowing the individual properties of nerve cells )
- One of the most intriguing and challenging aspects of learning physiology is developing
skills that help you understand how the different organ systems work together. One way
physiologists do this is by using 2 maps:
o Schematic representation of structure or function ( Fig 1-5a )
o Second map diagrams a physiological process and is therefore referred to as a
process map / flow chart ( Fig 1-5b )
- translational research ± applies the insights and results gained from basic biomedical
research to treating and preventing human diseases
o animal and human trials are essential steps in the process of applying basic
research to treating or curing diseases
Themes in Physiology
- Four major themes in this book are:
o Homeostasis and Control Systems
Homeostasis ± maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
Control system has three components:
x an input signal
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