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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Clare Hasenkampf

14 Gene StructureExpression Application to Genetics Creating copies of mussel genes to create mussel proteins that imitate that of mussel structure of Mytilus Used as material to firmly hold body parts together One Universal Truth of Life Every protein is put together on ribosomes following the instructions transcribed from genes coded win DNA organelle for protein synribosomes As we read note these distinctions kinds of info coded in DNA prokar vs eukar mchsms stucture of genes coding for proteins vs structure of genes coding for RNA141 Connection bween DNA RNA and ProteinHow discovery was made that DNA codes info to create proteins141a Genes Specify Either Protein or RNA Products1Garrods rsrch on patients w alkaptonuria blk urine concluded inborn natural error of metabolism caused disease those having alkaptonuria unable to metabolize particular chem that ends up being released in their urinersrch showed link bween genesmetabolism cause defect in fcn of enzyme to break down chem bc of altered gene thereby displaying phenotype blk urine of disease2 Beadle and Tatum Experiment on Neurospora crassaworked w fungi capable of synzing all its needed nutrientsmolecs given minimal medium takes simple chems and builds nearly all biomolecs crucial for its growth and reprod ex building blocks for RNA proteins DNAThe Experimentsubjected Neurospora to Xrays mutationinducing agent found that certain exposed members no longer able to survive in minimal medium environ wout giving additional nutrient supplyauxotrophsterm to describe mutant strains not able to grow on MMaka nutritional mutants hypothesized that auxotrophs had gene defects that prevented them from syn enzymes for making req nutrients thus have to rely on added supply linked what gene defect targetted WITH what nutrient the strain req in additional supply ex req Arg amino acid means that enzyme component in multistep process to syn Arg is defectivearg mutants Arg mutant analysisfound that biochemical pathway exclusive to syn Arginine critical nutrient req for strains to survive
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