BIOA01 Chapter 2 On Cell Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

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Biological Sciences
Zachariah Campbell

9262013 64200 AM Chapter 2 The Cell an Overview cell theory all organisms are composed of one or more cells the cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms cells arise only from the division of preexisting cellsmicroscopy technique for producing visible images of objects that are too small to be seen by the human eyemicroscope instrument of microscopy with different magnifications and resolutions of specimenslight microscopes microscope that uses light to illuminate the specimenelectron microscopes microscope that uses electrons to illuminate the specimenmagnification the ratio of an object as viewed to its real sizeplasma membrane a bilayer made of lipids with embedded protein molecules hydrophobic barrierselected watersoluble substances can penetrate membrane through transport protein channelscytoplasm contains the organelles cytosol cytoskeletonorganelles the nucleus and other specialized internal structures and compartments of eukaryotic cells cytosol an aqueous solution containing ions and various organic molecules cytoskeleton proteinbased framework of filamentous structures that help maintain cell shape and play role in cell division Prokaryotesprokaryotic cell is lacking a nucleus instead as a region called nucleoid which contains highly folded mass of DNA which is lacking a boundary membrane separating it from the cytoplasm prokaryotic chromosome can be spherical rodlike and spiralribosome consists of a large and small subunit each formed from a combination of rRNA and 3 rRNA molecules and 50 proteins has a cell wall that can be 15100nmglycocalyx a carbohydrate coat covering the cell surface
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