Chapter 1 Study Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Chapter 1: Studying Life 1.1 What is Biology N Biology is the scientific study of living things N Most living organisms: o Consist of organized cells o Contain genetic information o Use genetic information to reproduce, grow and develop o Convert and use energy from the environment o Adapt to environmental change o Maintain homeostasis N Some organisms are unicellular (one-celled) while others are multicellular N Antony van Leeuwenhoek discovered single-celled organisms, and Robert Hooke concluded that plant tissues were made up of repeated units called cells N Matthew Schleiden and Theodor Schwann stated the cell theory: o Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms o Cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms N Spontaneous Generation J an old doctrine that life emerged from self-assembly of non- living things (such as maggots from dead meat) N Louis Pasteur disproved this J life must be present in order for new life to form N The new cell theory (including the aforementioned statements): o All cells come from pre-existing cells o All cells are similarin chemical composition o Most of the chemical reactions of life occur within cells o Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division N Evolution J any genetic or resulting phenotypical change from generation to generation N Natural Selection J is the process by which heritable traits that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce become more common in a population over successive generations N Species J the group of organisms which have similar looks and can breed successfully with one another N Adaptations J traits that enhance the organism`s chance of survival and reproduction in its environment. N All cells contain genetic information in the genome (combination of all the DNA units) N DNA molecules are long sequences of four different subunits called nucleotides N Specific segments of DNA called genes contain the information the cell uses to make proteins N Proteins ZK }K}o oZZKlK Z}L}2L]ZK[ZZ LZ molecules that govern the chemical reactions within cells N Different types of cells in an organism must express different parts of their genome
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