Chapter 18.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Maydianne Andrade

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Biology Lecture 0607Chapter 18 Classification Evolution and PhylogenyWhy it MattersOverview Knowing what and organism is can be crucial An organism needs to be identified for example many mushrooms lookalike but you need to know what youre eating because some can be unhealthy and deadly Organisms share common traits even though they do not share immediate evolution Phylogenetic HistoryClassification of organisms is based on evolutionary relationships ex morphological development behavioral genetic and molecular data181 The Significance of Similarities and Differences Determining evolutionary relationships is crucial to understand organisms diversity Organisms may look the same but how closely related evolutionary sense are they is a tough task to find out Tendency is nature that organisms living in similar environment to develop similar body types this can be classified as parallel evolution or convergent evolution oConvergent evolution refers to phylogenetically more distantly related organismsoParallel evolution refers to more closely related onesSome organisms may look like something closely related to another organism but may not be Biologist much look closely at the organisms details this helps them identify what the organism is actually isoie What looks like a flower isnt always a flower Puccinia monoica is a fungus that affects growth of leaves and changes their appearance and odour These fungus induced flowers have nectaries glands producing nectar oSome Plants are carnivorous some plants in environments that lack nitrogen trap insect to obtain nitrogenoMammals with flat tails are not always beavers fossil records show other animals with flat tails182 Systematic BiologySystematic biology classification and taxonomy helps organize and understand the biological world The science of systematics has two major goalsoFirst goal reconstruct Phylogeny or evolutionary history of a group of organisms Phylogenies are presented as phylogenetic trees which are formal hypotheses identifying likely relationships among species Accurate phylogenetic trees are essential components of the comparative method that biologists use to analyze evolutionary processes
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