Chapter 3 (Fall2010)

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Biological Sciences
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Mary Olaveson

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BIOA01 FALL2010 CHAPTER 3 Macromolecules and the Origin of Life 31 Molecules that Characterize Living Thingsproteins carbohydrates lipids and nucleic acidspolymers many monomers bonded togethermonomer small moleculesmacromolecules large polymers proteins polysaccharides nucleic acidsfunctional group group of atoms which give the molecule its chemical characteristics and shape isomers molecules that have the same chemical formula but the atoms are arranged differentlystructural isomers differ in how atoms are joined togetheroptical isomers occur when a carbon atoms has 4 different atoms or groups of atoms attached to it mirror imagesBiochemical unity organisms can obtain required macromolecules by eating other organismsCondensation Reaction Dehydration Reaction water is removed monomers are bondedHydrolysis Reaction water is added polymer is broken apart forming monomers 32 Proteins and Enzymes Chapter 6function structural support defense catalysis protection transport regulation and movement20 amino acids arranged in different sequences Amino acidThe 20 amino acids
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