Chapter 7 (Fall2010)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BIOA01FALL2010 Chapter 7 Pathways that Harvest Chemical Energy 71 How does Glucose Oxidation release chemical energyGLycolysis begins glucose metabolism in all cells and produces two molecules of three carbon product pyruvate A small amount of the energy stored in glucose is captured in usable forms Glycolysis does not use Oxygen Cellular Respiration uses oxygen aerobic from the environment and completely converts each pyruvate molecule into three molecules of carbon dioxide A great deal of the energy stored in the covalent bonds of pyruvate is released and transferred to ADP and phosphate to form ATPFermentation does not involve oxygen anaerobic Converts pyruvate into lactic acid or ethyl alcohol which are still energy rich molecules Because the breakdown of glucose is incomplete much less energy is released than by cellular respirationGlycolysis takes place first then 3 steps of cellular respiration pyruvate oxudation citric acid cycle and the electron transport chainReduction is the gain of one or more electronsOxidation is the loss of one or more electronsGlucose is the reducing agent and oxygen is the oxidizing agent electron acceptor in both combustion and metabolismNAD nicotinaamide adenine dinucleotide acts as an electron carrier in redox reactionsIt exists as NAD oxidized and NADHH reduced FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide is also transfers electrons during glucose metabolism 72 Pathways of Glucose MetabolismLocations for Energy Pathways in Eukaryotesexternal mitochondrionglycolysis and fermentation inside mitochondrioinner membraneelectron transport chain matrix ctric acid cycle and pyruvate oxidationLocations for Energy Pathways in Prokaryotes cytoplassglycolysis fermentation citric acid cycle on plasma membranepyruvate oxidation electron transport chainGlycolysis takes place in the cytosol of cellsProduces pyruvates small amount of energy and generates no cartbon dioxideEnd products are2 pyruvates 4 ATP and 2 NADH
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