Chapter 9 (Fall2010)

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Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

BIOA01FALL2010 CHAPTER 9Chromosomes the Cell Cycle and Cell Division 91 How do Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells DivideIn order for cells to divide 4 events must occurReproductive signal which can come from inside or outside the cell and initiates divisionReplication of DNA and other vital cell components must occurCell must distribute that replicated DNA to each of the two new cells segregationNew material must be added to the cell membrane and cell wall if applicable in order to separate 2 new cells in a process called cytokinesisProkaryotes dividethrough binary fissionReproductive signals respond to conditions in environment nutrient concentration temperature etcReplication of DNA most prokaryotes have one chromosome a DNA molecule containing genetic information 2 regions of the prokaryotic circular chromosome play a functional role in cell reproductionori the site where the replication of the circle starts originter the site where replication ends terminusSegregation of DNA ori regions moves towards the opposite ends of the cellCytokinesis begins after replication is finished pinching in the plasma membrane to form a ring similar to a purse stringGametes sex cellsIn eukaryotes the signals for cell division are related to the needs of the entire organism andnot based on environmental conditionsMitosis is used to segregate the new replicated chromosomes which are closely associated with one another sister chromatidsEukaryotic cells have a distinct nucleus which has to be divided into 2 identical nuclei therefore cyotkinesis can only happen after duplication of the entire nucleusNext nuclear division which is called meiosis occurs in the cells that produce the gametes involved in sexual reproductionthe products of meiosis are not genetically identicalunlike mitosis 92 How is Eukaryotic Cell Division Controlled
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