Chapter 1 Notes (from textbook)

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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Chapter 1 Notes Biology: the scientific study of living things Living Things: all the organisms that descended from a single celled ancestor. Biological science was developed through: ooZ}9 o cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms & o cells are both distinct entities and building blocks of more complex organisms o All cells come from preexisting cells o All cells are similar in chemical composition o Most of the chemical reactions in life occur within cells o Complete sets of genetic information are replicated and passed on during cell division N Theory of evolution by natural selection o Evolution- a central theme o Living systems evolve through differential survival and reproduction o Humans select for desired traits when breeding animals o Darwin said that natural selection could happen through survival and reproductive success o Natural selection leads to adaptation o Conditions for natural selection are: N Individuals in the population vary in inheritable characteristics N Certain versions of the characteristics lead to better survival or reproduction compared to other version o If certain traits lead to higher success in producing offspring, the trait becomes more common in the population over time o Natural selection acts on individuals but evolutionary change on effect populations N Four nucleotides (C, G, T & A) are the building blocks of DNA; repeating subunits N DNA is made of 2 strands of linked sequences of nucleotides; the information that is passed form parent to daughter cells N Genome sum total of all the DNA in a cell N All cells in a multicellular organism have the same genome. N A gene is made of s specific sequences of nucleotides (a part of DNA); contains information for making proteins N Mutations are alterations in the nucleotide sequence N The nucleotide sequence in a gene contains the information to build a specific protein N Molecules are made of atoms N Cells of many types are working parts of organism
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