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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 40

bioa02 chapter 40

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Chapter 40 40.1 Why must animals regulate their internal environments? - the cells of multicellular animals exist within an internal environment of extracellular fluid that bathes every cell of the body o cells are protected from changes or harsh conditions in the external environment - as multicellular organisms evolved, cells became specialized for maintaining specific aspects of the internal environment o some cells evolved to be the interface between the internal and the external environments and to provide the necessary transport functions to get nutrients in, move wastes out, and maintain appropriate ion concentrations in the internal environment - other cells became specialized to provide internal functions such as circulation of the extracellular fluids, energy storage, movement, and information processing - the maintenance of stable conditions in the internal environment homeostasis o it is an essential feature of complex animals o if physiological system fails to function properly, it is compromised, and as a result cells are damaged and can die - the activities of all physiological systems are controlled by actions of the nervous and endocrine systems - the desire speed set point - the reading feedback information - when the set point and feedback information are compared, any difference between them is error signal o suggest corrective actions - effectors some components of physiological systems o they effect changes in the internal environment o they are controlled systems because their activities are controlled by commands from regulatory systems - regulatory system obtain, process, and integrate information, then issue commands to controlled systems o sensor an important component of any regulatory system provides the feedback information that is compared to the internal set point - negative feedback is the most common use of sensory information in regulatory systems o indicates that this feedback information causes the effectors to reduce or reverse the process of counteract the influence that created an error signal o is a stabilizing influence in physiological systems; it tends to return a variable of the internal environment to the set point from which hit deviated www.notesolution.com
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