Study Guide for Chapter 52 con't

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Chapter 52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life Ecology -The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment Communities -Systems embracing all the organisms living together in the same area Ecosystems -Systems embracing all organisms in as area plus their physical environment Biosphere -The system that embraces all region of the planet where organisms live Biotic factors -Living organisms A biotic Factor - Physical and chemical factors such as water, mineral nutrients, light, temperatureclimate and wind -If the sun is low in the sky, its light must pass through more of Earths atmosphere, so more of its energy is absorbed and reflected before it reaches the ground. Intertropical convergence zone - Air rises when it is heated by the sun, so warm air rises in the tropics, which receive the greatest solar energy input. This rising air is replaced by air that flows in toward the equator from the north and south - Cool air cannot hold moisture unlike warm air, so heavy rains fall in the intertropical convergence zone as the rising air-cools and releases its moisture. Rain Shadow - When these prevailing winds bring air masses into contact with a mountain range, the air rises to pass over the mountains, cooling as it goes so. Thus clouds frequently form on the windward side of the mounts (the side facing into the winds) and release moisture as rain or snow. On the leeward side (opposite from the direction of winds) of mountains, the now-dry air descends, warms and once again picks up more moisture. Dry are results on the leeward sides of the mountain Dispersal - Few individuals die exactly where they were born; at the same time during their lives, most organisms move, or are moved, to a new place Migration - Is one response to such a cyclical environmental change that occurs when repeated seasonal changes alter an environment in predictable ways, organisms may evolve life cycle that appear to anticipate those changes. Other animals enter a resting state (aestivation, hibernation, or diapause) before adverse conditions materialize. They remain in that state until, environmental signal indicate that condition have improved.
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