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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 42

Chapter 42 Textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Andrew Mason

Ch 42 REPRODUCTION 42.1 How do animals reproduce without sex? Sexual reproduction is universal in almost all organisms Some can reproduce sexually and asexually and some can only reproduce asexually Offspring that are reproduced asexually are identical to each other and parents o Can convert resources to reproduce o Dont have to look for a mate o But does not have the genetic diversity that comes with sexual reproduction which is a disadvantage in changing environments Animals that reproduce asexually are usually invertebrates o Are sessile o Cant look for mates o Dont have mates around o Live in constant environment where reproducing asexually would be advantageous Three ways animals reproduce asexually is by 1. budding, 2. regeneration 3. parthenogenesis Budding and regeneration produce new individuals by mitosis Buddingnew individuals form as outgrowths or buds from older animals o Bud formed by mitosis o Bud is identical to parent o Can grow to be as big as parent before being independent Regeneration o Usually thought as replacing damage tissue or lost limbs o But some organisms can regenerate to a new individual o If you cut a sea star into individual pieces then each piece will become an individual organism Parthenogenesis o The development of unfertilized eggs www.notesolution.com
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