Chapter 22 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Chapter 22: 22.1: natural selection: The differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genotypes belonging to the same population. The mechanism of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin. artificial selection : Animal breeding population: Any group of organisms coexisting at the same time and in the same place and capable of interbreeding with one another. adaptation: In evolutionary biology, a particular structure, physiological process, or behavior that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce. Also, the evolutionary process that leads to the development or persistence of such a trait phenotype : physical characteristics heritable: Able to be inherited; in biology, refers to genetically influenced traits. genotype : Genetic makeup population genetics: The study of genetic variation and its causes within populations. Population genetics has three main goals: To explain the origin and maintenance of genetic variation To explain the patterns and organization of genetic variation To understand the mechanisms that cause changes in allele frequencies in populations gene pool: All of the different alleles of all of the genes existing in all individual of a population. Mendelian population: A local population of individuals belonging to the same species and exchanging genes with one another. frequency: In population genetics, the proportion of all alleles or genotypes in a population composed of a particular allele or genotype. if there is 1 allele in a given location its frequency is 1
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