Chapter 22

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Chapter 22 Introduction To Evolution Charles Darwin - interested in science and became a companion of scientists, especially the botanist John Henslow, and went on a voyage in 1831 in the H.M.S. Beagle - explored the Galapagos Islands to study rocks and to observe and collect specimens of plants and animals - Theory for Evolutionary Change Species are not immutable; they change over time. The process that produces these changes is NATURAL SELECTION. - (1) asserted that evolution is a historical fact that can be demonstrated to have taken place; (2) natural selection is the cause of evolution - Alfred Russel Wallace was also studying the theory of natural selection; although both Darwin and Wallace articulated the idea of natural selection, Darwin developed the idea first and concepts of natural selection are more closely associated with Darwin (The Origin of Species) - (3) recognized that populations of all species have the potential for rapid increases in numbers; (4) reasoned that death rates in nature must also be high without high death rates, species would reach enormous population sizes - (5) observed that although offspring tend to resemble their parents, the offspring of most organisms are not identical to one another or to their parents; (6) suggested that slight variations among individuals affect the chance that a given individual will survive and reproduce (NATURAL SELECTION the differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same population) - Darwin was a pigeon breeder and was familiar with ARTIFICIAL SELECTION the selection by plant and animal breeders of individuals with certain desirable traits - individuals do not evolve; populations do (a POPULATION is a group of individuals of a single species that live and interbreed in a particular geographic area at the same time) Adaptation - in evolutionary biology, a particular structure, physiological process, or behaviour that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce; the evolutionary process that leads to the development or persistence of such a trait e
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