Chapter 55 notes

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Biological Sciences
Kamini Persaud

Chapter 55: Community Ecology 55.1 What are Ecological Communities? An ecological community consists of all the species that live and interact in a given area Henry Gleason argued that plant communities were loose associations of species; each species was distributed based on its environmental requirements supported by studies of plants Ecological communities are not assemblages that move together as a uniteach species has unique interactions with its environment Categorized by trophic levelsfood chains interact to make food webs as well Most communities share the fact that they have only 3-5 trophic levelsbecause energy is lost between trophic levelsresults in a limited number of levels Energybiomass decrease as it flows from lower to higher trophic levels Exception: equation systems have inverse biomass distribution Variations in the dimension of the energy distribution diagrams depend on the nature of the organisms at each trophic level 55.2 What processes influence community structure? Types of ecological interactions Types of ecological interactions Effect on organism 2 Effect on Harm Benefit No effect organism 1 Harm Competition PredationParasiti Ammensialism sm Benefit PredationParasitis Mutualism Commensalism m No effect Ammensialism Commensalism - These interactions may increase or decrease the range of conditions over which a species can exist Predation: o Predators of animals typically kill their prey
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