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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 52

Chapter 52 Study Guide

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Biological Sciences

Chapter 52 Ecology and the Distribution of Life 52.1 What is Ecology? -ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment -communities are systems including all organisms living in the same area -ecosystems are systems including all organisms in an area plus their physical environment -biosphere is system that includes all regions of the planet where organisms live -environment includes abiotic (physical and chemical) factors, such as water, mineral nutrients, light, temperature, and wind, and biotic factors (living organisms) -interactions between organisms and environment are two-way processes: organisms both influence and are influenced by environment 52.2 How Are Climates Distributed on Earth? -climate is the average of the atmospheric conditions (temperature, precipitation, wind direction, and velocity) over the long term -weather is short-term state of the conditions -solar energy affects atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns Solar energy drives global climates -rate at which solar energy arrives on Earth depends on the angle of sunlight -if the sun is low in the sky, the amount of solar energy is spread over a large area and is less intense than if the sun is directly overhead -its light passes through more of Earths atmosphere, more of its energy is absorbed and reflected before it reaches the ground -higher latitudes receive less solar energy than latitudes closer to equator -higher latitudes experience greater variation in both day length and angle of arriving solar energy in the year, resulting in a more seasonal variation in temperature -air temperature decreases with elevation -as air rises, it expands, its pressure and temperature drop, it releases moisture -when air descends, it is compressed, its pressure rises, its temperature increases, it takes up moisture -global air circulation patterns result from global variation in solar energy and spinning of Earth on its axis -air rises when it is heated by sun -rising air is replaced by air that flows in toward equator from north and south -coming together of air masses produces intertropical convergence zone -the zone shifts latitudinally with seasons, following shift in the zone of greatest solar energy input -shift results in predictable rainy and dry seasons in tropical and subtropical regions -at 60 north and south latitudes, air rises and moves either toward away from equator -at the poles, air descends because there is little solar energy input -Earths spinning velocity is rapid at equator where its diameter is greatest -Earths velocity is slow close to poles www.notesolution.com
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