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BIOA02H3 (153)
Chapter 34

chapter 34

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

Chapter 34: The Plant Body Possess cellulose-containing cell walls Cell Walls: 34.1: How is the Plant Body Organized: Angiosperms (flowering plants; vascular plants characterized by double Cytokenesis of a plant cell completed when two daughter cells are separated by a fertilization, triploid endosperm, seeds enclosed in modified in modified leavescell plate; deposit middle lamella (gluelike substance); daughter cell secretes cellulose to form the primary wall; continues as the cell expands to its final size. called carpels) have two major clades Monocots: generally narrow-leaved flowering plants such as grasses, lilies, Once cell expansion stops, a secondary wall may be created orchids and palms. Plasmodesmata: cytoplasm filled canals that pass through the primary wall allowing direct communication between plant cells. (located on primary wall) Eudicots: broad leaved flowering plants such as soybeans, roses and sunflowers Parenchyma Cells: Both these organisms, all organs are organized in two systems Parenchyma cells: usually have thin walls, consisting of only a primary wall and a shared middle lamellaand most have large central vacuoles; photosynthetic Shoot system: the aerial parts of a vascular plant, consisting of cells; may appear as packing material to support the stem the leaves, stems, and flowers Collenchyma Cells: Leaves: chief organism of photosynthesis Supporting cells; primary walls characteristically thick at the corners of the cells Blade: thin, flat structure attached to the stem and elongated, provides support to leaf petioles, nonwoody stems, and growing organs; flexible Petiole: stalk that attaches blade Sclerenchyma Cells: Have thickened secondary walls that perform their major function: support; die Stems: hold and display the leaves to the sun and provide after laying down their cell wallsperform support function when dead; two connections for the transport of materials between roots and leaves; types: fibers and sclerieds elevate and support the reproductive organs (flowers) and photosyntXylem: organs (leaves) Axillary bud: a bud occurring in the upper angle (axil) between a Tracheary Elements: undergo programmed cell death before they assume their function of transporting water and dissolved minerals leaf and stem Apical Bud: produces the cells for the upward and outward Tracheids: when cells contents disentegrate upon cell death, water and minerals growth and development of that shoot can move with little resistance from one tracheid to its neighbours by way of pits, interruptions in the secondary wall that leave the primary wall unobstructed. Nodes: points of attachment of leaf to stem Vessel elements: must also die and become empty before they can transport water Internodes: stem regions between successive nodes Phloem: Root system: anchors plant in place and provides nutrition; high surface to volume ratio of roots allow them to absorb water and mineral Sieve tube element
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