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Biological Sciences
Rene E Harrison

BIOB10 CHAPTER 8 NOTESEndomembrane system CYTOPLASM Endoplasmic reticulum golgi complex endosomes lysosomes and vacuoles The organelles of the endomembrane system are part of a dynamic integrated network in which materials are shuttled back and forth from one part of the cell to another For the most part materials are shuttled between organellesfrom the Golgi complex to the plasma membrane for examplein small membranebounded transport vesicles that bud from a donor membrane compartment A biosynthetic pathway can be discerned in which proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum modied during passage through the Golgi complex and transported from the Golgi complex to various destinations such as the plasma membrane a lysosome or the large vacuole of a plant cell This route is also referred to as the secretory pathway as many of the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulumSecretory activities of cells can be divided into two types constitutive and regulated During constitutive secretion materials are transported in secretory vesicles from their sites of synthesis and discharged into the extracellular space in a continual manner Most cells engage in constitutive secretion a process that contributes not only to the formation of the extracellular matrix but to the formation of the plasma membrane itself During regulated secretion materials are stored as membranebound packages and discharged only in response to an appropriate stimulus Regulated secretion occurs for example in endocrine cells that release hormones in pancreatic acinar cells that release digestive enzymes and in nerve cells that release neurotransmitters In some of these cells materials to be secreted are stored in large densely packed membranebound secretory granules 1 Compare and contrast the biosynthetic pathway with the endocytic pathway 2 How are particular proteins targeted to particular subcellular Compartmentstraffic patternsAutoradiography autoradiography provides a means to visualize biochemical processes by allowing an investigator to determine the location of radioactively labeled materials within a cell In this technique tissue sections containing radioactive isotopes are covered with a thin layer of photographic emulsion which is exposed by radiation emanating from radioisotopes within the tissue
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