chapter 5 - mitochondria notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Rene E Harrison

Anaerobes Organisms that captured and utilized energy by the means oxygen independent metabolism In eukaryotes the utilization of oxygen as a means ofenergy extraction takes place in a specialized organelle the mitochondrionMitochondria are large enough to be seen in the light microscope and their presence within cells has been known for over a hundred yearsAt one end of the spectrum mitochondria can appear as individual beanshaped organelles Figure 51b ranging from 1 to 4 m in length At the other end of the spectrum mitochondria can appear as a highly branched interconnected tubular network Mitochondria can fuse with one another or split in twoMitochondria occupy 15 to 20 percent of the volume of an average mammalian liver cell and contain more than a thousand different proteinsThese organelles are best known for their role in generating the ATP that is used to run most of the cells energyrequiring activitiesA particularly striking arrangement of mitochondria occurs in sperm cells where they are often located in the midpiece just behind the nucleusMitochondria arealso prominent in many plant cells where they are the primary suppliers of ATP in nonphotosynthetic tissues as well as being a source of ATP in photosynthetic leaf cells during periods of darkBesides being involved i
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