chapter 6 - chloroplast notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
Rene E Harrison

Heterotrophs Organisms that depend on an external source of organic compounds Autotrophs Organisms capable of surviving on CO2 as their principle carbon source 2 types chemoautotrophs and photoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs Utilize the chemical energy stored in inorganic molecules to convert CO2 into organic compounds All are prokaryotes Photoautotrophs Utilize the radiant energy of the sun to convert CO2 into organic compoundsThey include plants and eucarytoic algae protists and several other prokaryotesPhotosynthesis a process in which energy from sunlight is transformed into chemical energy that is stored in carbohydrates and other organic moleculesDuring photosynthesis relatively lowenergy electrons are removed from a donor compound and converted into highenergy electrons using the energy absorbed from light Cyanobacteria if an organism is going to carry out oxygenic oxygenreleasing photosynthesis it has to generate a very strong oxidizing agent as part of its photosynthetic metabolism in order to pull tightly held electrons from water The switch from H2O Photosynthetic vesicles H2S or other reduced substrates to H2O as the electron source for photosynthesis required an overhaul of the photosynthetic machinery Cynaobacterium transformed into a chloroplast As the chloroplast evolved most of the genes that were originally present in the symbiotic cyanobacterium were either lost or transferred to the plant cell nucleusChloroplasts are located predominantly in the mesophyll cells of leavesChloroplasts of higher plants are generally lensshapedapproximately 2 to 4 um wide and 5 to 10 um long and typically numbering 20 to 40 per cellchloroplasts arise by ssion from preexisting chloroplasts or their nonpigmented precursors which are called proplastidsChloroplasts were identied as the site of photosynthesis in 1881 in an ingenious experiment by the German biologist T Engelmann
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