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Biological Sciences
Rene E Harrison

BIOB10 CHAPTER 18 NOTES Microscopes are instruments that produce an enlarged image of an object The phasecontrast microscope makes highly transparent objects more visible The uorescence microscope allows viewers to observe the location of certain compounds called uorochromes or uorophores Fluorochromes absorb invisible ultraviolet radiation and release a portion of the energy in the longer visible wavelengths a phenomenon called uorescence In the late 1950s Marvin Minsky of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology invented a revolutionary New instrument called a laser scanning confocal microscope that produces an image of a thin plane situated within a much thicker specimen STORM stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy which allows investigators to localize a single uorescent molecule within a resolution of less than 20 nm In this technique the specimen is illuminated with light of different wavelengths which has the effect of switching the uorescence activity of the labeled molecules on and off During each cycle of illumination most of the labeled molecules remain dark but a small fraction of them are randomly activated As a result these individual activated uorescent molecules can be imaged and their position determined with very high accuracy This process is then repeated for a number of imaging cycles resulting in the construction of
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