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Biological Sciences
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 1 11 Most living organismso Consist of one or more cells o Contain genetic information o Use genetic information to reproduce themselves o Are genetically related and have evolved o Can convert molecules obtained by their environment into new biological molecules o Can extract energy from the environment and use it to do biological work o Can regulate their internal environmentUnicellularconsists of one cell that carries out all the functions of lifeMulticellularmade up of a number of cells that are specialized for different functionsCell theoryo Cells are the basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms o Cells are both distinct entities and the building blocks of more complex organisms o All cells come from preexisting cells o All cells are the same in chemical composition o Most of the chemical reactions of life occur within cells o Completes sets of genetic information is replicated and passed on during cell divisionSpeciesgroup of organisms that look alike and can breed successfully with each otherGenomeSum of all dna molecules in the cellDnalong strands of 4 different subunits called nucleotidesProteinsMolecules that govern the chemical reaction within cellsGenomeAll the genes in a complete haploid set of chromosomesMutationsalteration of genesNutrientsOrganisms get them from the ground they supply energy 12 All organisms are related through a common ancestorProkaryotesProkaryotic cell structure consists of DNA and other biochemicals enclosed in a membraneMetabolismThe sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on inside a cell constitutes the cells metabolismEukaryotesCell structure consisting of specialized cellular functions such as the nucleus which contained the cells genetic informationCellular specializationspecific cell function exabsorbing nutrientsArchea and bacteriaprokaryotesScientific methodo Making observations
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