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BIOB11H3 (13)
Dan Riggs (8)
Chapter 10

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School
University of Toronto Scarborough
Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 10The Nature of the Gene and the Genome Genome Collective body of genetic information that is present in a species contain all genes to make organisme101 The Concept of a Gene as a Unit of Inheritance1860s Gregor Mendelsmall garden plot for pea plants his goal was to mate or cross pea plants having different inheritable characteristics and to determine the Pattern by which these characteristics were transmitted to offspringMendels conclusion 1 Characteristics of plants were governed by distinct factorsunits of inheritancegenes posses 2 copies of gene that control development of traits identical or nonidentical AlleleAlternate forms of gene 2 Each reproductive cellgamete produced by plant contained 1 copy of gene for each traitsrecessive or dominant from male and female gamete 3 Even though pair of alleles remained together they became separatedsegregated during formation of gametesMendels law of segregation 4 Segregation of pair of alleles for 1 trait had no effect ton segregation of alleles for another traitMendels law of independent assortment1900 European botanists independently reached same conclusion and found Mendels paper 102 Chromosomes The Physical Carriers of the Gene The Discovery of ChromosomesEarly 1880s Walther FlemmingCytoplasmic contents were shuttled into 1 daughter cell depending on plane where furrow happened to divide the cellDuring cell division material of nucleus became organized into visible threadschromosomescoloured bodiesFertilization Sperm and egg both have nucleus and xsomes Normal development Boveri is dependent upon a particular combination of xsomes and individual xsomes must possess different qualitiesqualitative differencePolyspermy Characterized by disruptive cell division and early death of embryoEduoard can Beneden Cells of worms body had 4 large xsomes but male and female nuclei in egg just after fertilization had 2 xsomes apiece
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