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Biological Sciences
Connie Soros

BIOB33 ASSIGNED READINGS Radiological Procedures Radiologists: physicians who specialize in the performance and analysis of diagnostic images of internal structures X-Rays: form of high energy radiation than can penetrate living tissues. Beam of X-rays travels through the body and strikes a photographic plate. Not all the xrays arrive on film, some are absorbed or deflected. The resistance to x-ray penetration is called radiodensity. Air->fat->liver->blood->muscle->bone , increasing radiodensity -radiodense tissues appear in white(ie bone), and less dense tissues are seen in shades of gray to black Barium-contrast x-ray: barium is very radiodense, used to xray upper digestive tract, the contours of the gastric and the intestinal lining can be seen outlined against the white of the barium solution. CT Scans: aka CAT scans, use a single x-ray source rotating around the body. Construction of a three- dimensional structure of the body. Lecture 2: Repairing Injuries to the Skin -the skin can regenerate, because STEM CELLS persist in both epithelial and connective tissue components -deeper the cut, the longer it will take because it involves a much greater surface area to be repaired 4 stages of repairing skin -Bleeding occurs, -the formation of a blood clot temporarily restores the integrity of the epidermis. Cells of the staratum basale begin rapid division and beings to migrate along the edges of the wound in an attempt to place the missing epidermal cells. If the wound occupies an extensive area, dermal repairs must be under way before epithelial cells can cover the surface. Granulation Tissue: combination of blood clot, fibroblast, and an extensive capillary network. -appearance of collagen fibers and typical ground substance -scar tissue can be considered a practical limit to the healing process. The process is highly variable, we do not know what regulates the extent of scar tissue formation. Scar tissue does not occur after surgeries on fetus, growth factors??? Keloid: thick, raised area of scar tissue, covered by a shiny, epidermal surface. Lecture 3 Spermatogensis and Meiosis -primary spermatocyte->secondary spermatocye->spermatids -4 spermatids per primary spermatocyte -spermatogensis is directly stimulated by testosterone and indierectly stimulated by FSH -each spermatid matures into a spermatozoon via spermiogensis -embedding of spermatid in cytoplasm of Nurse Cell -detatches when fully matured Five Important Functions of Nurse Cells: -maintain of the blood-testis barrier -tight junctions -support of spermatogenesis -relies of nurse cells stimulated by testosterone, FSH -support of spermiogenesis -nurse cells promote development -secretion of inhibin -hormone that stops fsh production -secretion of androgen-building protein (ABP) -responsible for elevating concentration of androgens to stimulate spermiogenesis OVARIAN CYCLE -begins as activated primordial follicles develop into Primary follicles -step two: formation of Secondary Ovarian Follicles -only some primary follicles develop into secondary follicles -accumulation of follicular fluid -Step 3: Formation of a Tertiary Ovarian Follicle -
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