Lecture 1 Introduction to Anatomy.docx

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Biological Sciences
Zachariah Campbell

Lecture1:Introductionto Anatomy Anatomy  Anatomy: the study of external and internal structures and the relationships between body parts, providing clues about function and physiology. Anatomical features are what undergo physiological processes and the careful observation of the human body  Physiology: the study of how body functions and the study of mechanisms in the body  There are different types of anatomy o Microscopic Anatomy: also called fine anatomy, considers structures that require magnification to be seen. This can be subdivided into  Cytology to analyze the internal structure of cells  Histology to analyze tissues and groups of specialized cells, which work together to function. o Gross/ Macroscopic Anatomy: doesn’t require the use of magnification equipment, focuses on groups of tissues that work together to form organs. This can be divided in  Surface anatomy: to focus on morphology and superficial structures or anatomical markings  Regional anatomy: focusing on superficial and internal (deep) structures of parts of the body (ex. head or abdomen)  Systemic anatomy: which focuses on the anatomy of organ systems (digestive system, cardiovascular system) Other Perspectives on Anatomy  Developmental Anatomy: examines changes in form that occur from the time of conception to maturity. The size of what is being looked at therefore ranges from a single cell to a whole organism.  Embryology: studies the early developmental stages in depth.  Comparative Anatomy: focuses on the anatomical organization of different animals to compare them for evolutionary relationships. This combines microscopic, gross, and developmental anatomy.  Clinical Anatomy: focuses on anatomical features that may undergo pathological changes during illness.  Surgical Anatomy: studied anatomical landmarks important for surgical procedures. • Radiographic Anatomy: involves the study of anatomical structures as seen in x-rays, ultrasounds, or other scans.  Cross-Sectional Anatomy: a type of gross anatomy, looking at sections of the body as seen in CT scans and other radio-imaging procedures etc. Biological Levels of Organization Biological Level of Organization: there are 5 different levels at which anatomy can be studied and which also may overlap:  Chemical and Molecular Level (simple): where elements H, O, C, and N make up 99% of the atoms in the body, and these interact to form molecules with certain properties such as water, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.  Cellular Level: includes cells, which contain organelles made up of complex chemicals. The structure, function, and interaction of the cell and its organelles with each other are involved. Ex. muscle cells  Tissue Level: where cells work together and with the same function, making up tissues that can be a part of organs. Ex. cardiac muscle tissue  Organ Level: where the function of an organ depends on the tissues that make it up, the molecules that are involved within the cells of these tissues working together. These organs can also work together to produce  Organ systems: Ex. the heart, which is part of the cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular, and lymphatic systems.  Organismal Level: where all organ systems are vital to living and a problem at any of the lower levels can affect the organism. NOTE: problems associated with lower levels can affect the function of higher levels, therefore anything that affects a system will affect it at all levels in some way. Levels of Organization of Organ Systems: Humans are composed of 11 organ systems.  Organism levels: All of the organ systems must work together for a person to remain alive and healthy  Organ system level: (cardiovascular system): The cardiovascular system includes the heart, the blood and the blood vessels  Organ level: (heart) the heart is a complex 3 dimensional organ  Tissue level: cardian muscle tissue constitutes the bulk of the walls of the heart  Cellular level: cardiac muscle tissue is formed from interlocking heart muscles  Chemical or molecular levels: heart muscle cells contain within them contractile protein fibred. These complex contractile protein fibres are organized from moleculues. Moleculues are formed from interacting atoms.  Integumentary System: protection from environmental hazards; temperature control  Skeletal System: support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage; blood formation  Muscular System: locomotion, support, heat production  Nervous System: directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems  Endocrine System: directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems  Cardiovascular System: internal transport of cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients, wastes, and gases  Lymphoid System: defense against infection and disease  Respiratory System: delivery of air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and circulating blood  Digestive System: Processing of food and absorption of organzi nutrients, minerals, vitamins and water  Urinary System: elimination of excess water, salts, and waste products, control of pH  Reproductive System: production of sex cells and hormones The Language of Anatomy  Superficial Anatomy: the terms are typically derived from Latin or Green. These languages are used because they are descriptive languages. Superficial refers to the outside of the body  Anatomical Position: The hands are at the side, the palms facing forward. All discussion of the human body is in reference to the anatomical position. o Supine: lying down (face up) in the anatomical position o Prone: lying down (face down) in the anatomical position  Homeostasis: the maintenance of the internal environment to a stable state or between narrow limits by a feedback loop. Organisms contain homeostatic mechanisms, which regulate external changes one may encounter along with changes occurring internally. Failure to maintain this results in disease, which can affect cells, tissues, organs, or organ systems requiring medication, medical assistance (ex. surgery), or body defenses to overcome.  Responsiveness: also known as irritability, how all organisms respond to changes in their environment. Organisms can also make long-term adjustments for larger/longer changes in the environment. The ability to respond is known as adaptability.  Differentiation: as all organisms grow, they increase in size and number of cells, therefore some cells must become specialized by differentiating to carry out a new function in the body. NOTE: all organisms also undergo reproduction, internal movement (ex. blood, food), external movement (movement), and metabolize/excrete wastes.  Metabolism: all chemical activities being carried out in the body, where catabolism is the breakdown of molecules into simpler ones the body can use, and where anabolism is the synthesis of more complex molecules from simpler ones. This requires materials such as nutrients to be absorbed from the environment to be transported to cells to be used. Waste products of these processes can be excreted.  Supine: when the person is lying face up in the anatomical position. Opposite of prone, which is when the person is lying face down in the anatomical position. Anatomical Landmarks: Frons: Forehead Lumbus: Loin/lower back Cranium: Skull Pelvis: Pelvic Facies: Face Carpus: Wrist Cephalon: Head (skull and face) Manus: Hand Nasus: Nose Palma: Palm Oculus: Eyes Digits: Fingers/Toes/Phalanges Auris: Ears Pollex: Thumb Bucca: Cheeks Inguen: Groin Oris: Oral/Mouth Pubis: Pubic Mentis: Chin Gluteus: Buttocks Cervicis: Neck Femur: Thigh Shoulder: Acromial Patella: Front of knee Thoracis: Chest/thorax Popliteus: Back of knee Dorsum: back/dorsal Crus: Shin Axilla: Armpit Sura: Calf Brachium: Arm Tarsus: Ankle Antecubitus: Front of elbow Calcaneus: Heel Olecranon: Back of elbow Hallux: Big toe Antebrachium: Forearm Pes: foot Mamma: Breast Abdomen: Abdominal Umbilicis: Navel  Abdominopelvic Quadrants: Anatomists and clinicians use specialized regional terms to indicate a specific area of concern within the abdomen or the pelvic regions of the body. The abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into four regions (abdominopelvic quadrants) which includes the right and left upper quadrants and the right and left lower quadrants, separated with an imaginary cross at the umbilicus: o RUQ: includes the right kidney, right lobe of liver, gallbladder, part of stomach, small and large intestine. o LUQ: includes left kidney, left lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, large intestine. o RLQ: includes caecum, appendix, small and large intestine, right side of reproductive organs (right ovary in female and right spermatic cord in male), right ureter. o LLQ: includes small and large intestine, left side of reproductive organs (left ovary in female, and left spermatic cord in male), left ureter.  Abdominopelvic Regions: the abdomen and pelvic regions can be subdivided into nine regions: including the right and left hypochondriac, the epigastric, the right and left lumbar region, the umbilical region, the right and left inguinal region, and the hypogastric region.  Anatomical directions: o Anterior: also known as rostral, referring to locations towards the nose of the organism. o Posterior: also known as caudal, referring to locations towards the tail of the organism. o Dorsal: also known as superior, referring to locations towards the top/back. o Ventral: also known as inferior or basal, referring to locations the bottom/belly. o Cranial: referring to the head, towards the head. Also called cephalic. o Superior: above, at a high level. Towards the head in humans. o Inferior: below, at a low level, Towards the tail in humans. o Medial: referring to structures of the body that are closest to the midline o Lateral: referring to structures of the body that are furthest from the midline. In addition, structures that are found on the same side of the body are ipsilateral and those found on opposite sides are contralateral. o Proximal: towards the attached base, in reference to another body part. o Distal: away from an attached base, in reference to another body part. o Superficial: towards the surface of the skin. o Deep: away from the skin’s surface. Sectional Anatomy  Anatomical Planes of Section: there are three planes of the body which are perpendicular to each other in by which sections can be cut: o Sagittal Plane: refers to the plane that cuts the body into left and right halves. This can be along the midline, which is midsagittal, or off-centered which is parasagittal. o Frontal Plane: also known as the coronal plane, refers to the plane that cuts the body into anterior and posterior halves and is perpendicular to the ground. o Horizontal Plane: also known as the transverse plane, refers to the plane that cuts the body into superior and inferior halves and is parallel to the ground.  There are many different ways to dissect a piece of tissue for further study. These are referred to as dissectional cuts or d
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