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Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

Thursday May 12, 2011 CHAPTER 1 1  Physiology – the study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical processes  Anatomy – the study of structure, with much less emphasis in function PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS  Physiology encompasses many levels of organization, from the molecular level all the way up to populations of a species o Integumentary systemcomposed of the skin; forms a protective boundary that separates the body’s internal environment from the external environment o Musculoskeletal systemprovides support and body movement  Four systems exchange materials between the internal and external environments o Respiratory system exchanges gases o Digestive system takes up nutrients and water and eliminates waste o Urinary systemremoves excess water and waste material o Reproductive systemproduces eggs or sperm  Four systems extend throughout the body o Circulatory systemdistributes materials by pumping blood through vessels o Nervous/Endocrine Systemscoordinate body functions FUNCTION AND PROCESS  The function of a physiological system or event is the “why” of the system  Teleological approach describing physiological processes by their purpose rather than their mechanism  Mechanistic approachthe ability to explain the mechanisms that underlie physiological events HOMEOSTATIS  Extracellular fluidthe watery internal environment of multicellular animals o fluid within the body that surrounds the cells o serves as the transition between an organisms external environment and intracellular fluid o since ECF is a buffer zone between the outside world and most cells of the body, elaborate physiological processes have evolved to keep its composition relatively stable  intracellular fluid fluid within the cells  if the body fails to maintain homeostasis, then normal function is disrupted and a disease state, or pathological condition, may result  2 different types of disease groups o Those in which the problem arises from internal failure of some normal physiological process. Ex…  Abnormal growth of cells (cancer or benign tumours) Thursday May 12, 2011 CHAPTER 1 2  The production of antibodies by the body against its own tissues (autoimmune diseases)  Premature death of cells or the failure of cell processes  Inherited disorders o Those that originate from some outside source  Toxic chemicals, physical trauma, and foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria  When homeostasis is disturbed, the body attempts to compensate o If compensation is successful, homeostasis is restored o If compensation is unsuccessful, illness or disease may result  Pathophysiology the study of body f
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