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Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Ted Petit

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Physiological Principles:  Physiological process is a product of activities of complex tissues, organs and systems that arise from genetic regulation of cells  Unifying themes in physiological process include: o First: physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws o Second: process are regulated to maintain internal conditions within acceptable ranges  Homeostasis (internal consistency): maintained through feedback loops that sense conditions and tripper a response o Third: physiological state of an animal is part of a phenotype: arise as a product of the genetic makeup (genotype), and its interactions with the environment o Fourth: the genotype: is a product of evolutionary changes in a group of organisms (population or species)  Both genotype and the environment interact to product the phenotype.  The phenotype of an animal can influence its reproductive success Physiological Past and Present:  Hippocrates: emphasized the importance of careful observation in the treatment of disease  Aristotle: emphasized on the relationship between structure and function  Claudius Galenus: founder of physiology. He designed experiments to probe function of the body  Ibn al-Nafis: described the relationship between the lungs and the aeration of the blood  Jean Fernal: outlined the current state of knowledge of human health and disease  Andreas Vesalius: author of first modern anatomy book  William Harvey: identified paths of blood through the body, and showed the contraction of the heart power this movement  Physiologist formed two categories: iatrochemists and iatrophysiscts: o Iatrochemists: believed that the body function involved only chemical reactions o Iatrophysicists: believed that only [hysical process were involved  Albert von Haller: proposed that bodily functions were combination of physical and chemical processes  Mathias Schielden and Theodor Schwaan: formed the cell theory  Claude Bernard: discovered myoglobin carries oxygen, liver contains glycogen, that nerves can regulate blood flow and that ductless glands produce internal secretions o Contributions: milieu interieur (internal environment): Organisms have a distinct internal environment despite changes in the external environment  Per Scholander: influential comparative physiologists (dealt with diversity of physiological process)  C. Ladd Prosser: discovered central pattern generators o Central Pattern generators: these groups of neurons coordinate many rhythmic behaviours  Knut Nielson: research on understanding on how animals live in harsh and unusual environment’s  George Bartholomew: founder of ecological physiology; study of how an organism interact with the environment  Peter Hochacha and Somero: founder of the field of adaptational Sub disciplines in Physiological Research  There are three main ways to categorize physiological subdisplines: biological level of organization, by the nature of the process that cause physiological variation, and by the ultimate goals of the researcher Physiological sub disciplines can be distibguished by the biological level of organization:  Cell and molecular physiologists: study the phenomenon that occurs at the cellular level (signal transduction, metabolic biochemistry etc.)  System physiologist: concerned with how cells and tissue interact to carry out specific responsibilities  Organismal physiologist: concerned with the way an intact animal undertakes a specific process or response  Ecological physiologists: how the physiological properties of an animal influence the disturbance and abundances of a species or population  Integrative physiologist: attempts to understand physiological processes at a variety of levels of biological organizations and across multiply physiological systems  Reductionism: assumes that we can learn about a system by studying the function of its parts o However many process have characteristics are not apparent just by examining the components of the part o Emergence: the whole is often more than the sum of its parts  These properties are due to interaction of the components of parts of the system  Physiological subdisplines can be distinguished by the process that generates variation:  Developmental physiologist: studies how structures and functions change as animals grow through their life stages  Environmental physiologists: assesses how animals mount physiological response to environmental changes  Evolutionary physiology: is primarily concerned with explaining how specific physiological traits arise within lineages over generations o Animal physiology can be pure or an applied science:  Applied physiologist: intended to achieve a specific, or practical goal (ultimate goal)  Medical physiology is to understand human disease, and model systems  Comparative physiologist: studies animals to explore the origin’s and nature of physiological  diversity  BOX 1.1:  Model species is an organism that is used because it has features that are conducive to experimentation, and understanding a process in the model provides insight into how the process work in other species  August Krogh Principle: For every biological problem there is an organism on which it can be most conveniently studied  Model is chosen because of: parallels with human biology, they have unusual anatomical features, their developmental biology and the ease with which genes can be modified Unifying Themes in Physiology: *chart in notes* Physics and chemistry: The Basis of physiology: o Physiologist use physical and chemical sciences (including engineering) to help them understand how animals work Medical Theory Helps us understand how organism work:  Biological materials have physical properties that make them useful for some process but not others  Physicochemical characteristics of these biomaterials are determined by their molecular properties.  The mechanical properties (of tissues and bones) and engineering concepts (flow, pressure) play a role in physiology. Electrical Potentials are a
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