BIOB50 Ch.2

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Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

Chapter 2 The Physical Environment Review pg 3Case Study y Salmon are anadromous they are born in freshwater streams spend their adultlives in the ocean and then return to spawn in the freshwater habitats where they were borny Mantua found a relationship bw salmon production and sea surface temperaturesy Hare and Francis hypothesized that the abrupt shifts in salmon production were associated w longterm climatic variation in the North Pacific y The physical environment is the ultimate determinant of where organisms can live the resources that area available to them and the rate at which their populations can grow Includes climate longterm trends in temp and precipitation radiation from the sun which ultimately drives the climate system as well as biological energy production Chemical environment includes salinity s of dissolved salts acidity and of gases in the atmosphere and dissolved in water another aspect of physical environment Soil impt component of physical environment bc it is a medium in which microorganisms plants and animals live Soil influences he availability of critical resources particularly water and nutrientsClimatey Climate is the most fundamental characteristic of the physical environmenty Weather the current temp humidity precipitation wind and cloudiness based on avgs and variation measured over decadesy Climate a longterm descriptionof weathery Climatic variation includes the daily and seasonal cycles associated w changes in solar radiation as the Earth rotates on its axis and orbits the sunsuch as carbon dioxide y Earths climate is currentlychanging due to changes in atmospheric concentrations of gasesthat are emitted as a result of human activitiesClimate controls where and how organisms livey Where organisms live their geographic distribution and who they function are determined by climatey Temp determines the rates of biochemical reactions and physiological activity for all organisms of the ocean waters they live in y Marine organisms depend on ocean currents that influence the temp and chemistryy The timing of changes in the physical environment is also ecologically impt as the seasonality of the rainfall for eg is an impt determinant of water availability for terrestrial organisms that affect organismsy Climate also influences that rates of abiotic processesy These events periodic disturbances like fires rockslides and avalanches kill organisms and disrupt biological communities but subsequently create opportunities for the establishment and growth of new organismsAtmospheric and Oceanic Circulation y Winds and ocean currents result from differences in solar radiation across the surface of Earthy The sun is the ultimate source of energy that drives the global climate y Energy gains from solar radiation must be offset by energy losses if Earths temp is to remain the same
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