CHAPTER 5 - Texbook Notes.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Marc Cadotte

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CHAPTER 5 COPING WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATION ENERGYToolmaking Crows A Case Studyy Among the families of birds the corvids which includes crows ravens magpies jays and jackdaws have entered our cultural heritage with a reputation for being clever However the discovery that crows use food collecting tools manufactured from plants was still quite unexpected Gavin Hunt reported in 1996 that the crows Corvus moneduloides of New Caledonia an island in the South Pacific used tools to snag insect larvae spiders and other arthropods and pull them from the wood of living and Figure 52APg 107 Hunt found that two types of decomposing trees Hunt 1996 tools were being used by the crows The first was a hooked twig fashioned from a shoot stripped of its leaves and bark Figure 52BPg 107 The second was a stepped cut serrated edge clipped from a Pandanus tree The tools were therefore manufactured rather than just collected from materials lying on the groundCONCEPT 51 Organisms obtain energy from sunlight from inorganic chemical compounds or through the consumption of organic compoundsSources of Energyy Radiant and chemical energy are the forms organisms use to meet the demands of growth and maintenance while kinetic energy through its influence on the rate of chemical reactions and temperature is important for controlling the rate of activity and metabolic energy demand of organisms y Autotrophs are organisms that assimilate energy from sunlight photosynthetic organisms or from inorganic chemical compounds in their environment chemosynthetic archaea and bacteria Autotrophs convert the energy of sunlight or inorganic compounds into chemical energy stored in the carbon carbon bonds of organic compounds typically carbohydratesy Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain their energy by consuming energy rich organic compounds made by other organisms energy that ultimately originated with organic compounds synthesized by autotrophs Heterotrophs include organisms that consume nonliving organic matter detritovores such as earthworms and fungi that feed on soil detritus derived mainly from dead plants or bacteria in a lake that consume dissolved organic compounds Heterotrophs also include organisms that consume living organisms but do not necessarily kill them parasites and herbivores as well as consumers predators that capture and kill their food source preyCONCEPT 52 Radiant and chemical energy captured by autotrophs is converted into stored energy in carbon carbon bondsAutotrophyy The vast majority of the autotrophic production of chemical energy on Earth occurs through photosynthesis a process that uses sunlight to provide the energy needed to take
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