Chapter 2 and The Pattern of Evolution Lectures 3,4 and 5 (fall2011)

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Biological Sciences
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Maydianne Andrade

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BIOB51Fall2011 Chapter 2 The Pattern of EvolutionLecture 3 and 4 and 5 the theory of special creation has 2 componentsthe first component is a set of assertions species do not change through time they were created independently of one another and they were created recently the second component identifies the process that is responsible for producing the pattern separate and independent acts of creation by a designer Darwin came up with the Theory of Descent with Modificationclaimed that specie are not immutable but change through time species are derived not independently but from common ancestor the Earth and life are considerably old21 Evidence of Change through Time Evidence from Living Speciesby monitoring natural populations we can directly observe small scale change or microevolutionif we examine the bodies of living organisms we can find evidence of dramatic change or macroevolution Direct Observation of Change through Time Soapberry Bugs Examplesoapberry bugs feed by using their long beaks to attack the inflated balloon like fruit capsules of their host plants they pierce through the capsule and when they reach the seed they liquify it and then they suck it up prior to 1925 bugs in florida lived exclusively on their native host the round capsuled balloon vinestarting in 1926 and gaining momentum in the 1950s farmers started planting an Asian relative of this which has flat capsuled fruitsthe soapberry bugs started exploiting this and their population grewin 1992 Carroll and Christian Boyd took bugs living off both kinds of trees and found that on average the bugs living off of the flat capsuled tree had shorter beaks than the bugs that lived off of round capsuled treesthe data therefor implies that the bugs evolved after switching to their new host the alternative interpretation would be that soapberry bugs just grow beaks long enough to reach whatever seeds they are feeding on and once the beak is long enough it stops growing in 1997 Carrol and colleagues lab reared bugs from both location and found that no matter what the bugs were given to feed on the soapberry bugs that came from parents with shortbeaks developed short beaks and bugs that came from parents with long beaks developed long beaks therefore the 2 kinds of bugs are genetically different from one another but the short beaked bugs descended from the long beaked bugs in 2005 Carroll and colleagues reported that the ballon vine bugs native host had been spreading as an invasive week in Australia for 80 years where it had been colonized by the AUstralian soapberry bugthe Australians bug native host is a small podded tree called the woolly rambutan and the Australian bug consequently has a short beak populations of Australian bugs that have been living for many generations on balloon vines have evolved significantly longer beaks than their ancestorstherefore their characteristics are not immutable they have changed substantially over timeWomen in Tibet ExampleTibet is 30004000m above sea levelthe partial pressure of Oxygen is 45 lower than at sea levelobserved variation in blood oxygen content of village women which was not just simply differences in physiological acclimatization to high altitudesAB BB genotypeaverage oxygen saturationAA genotype10 higher average blood oxygen saturation
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