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Biological Sciences

Plant Physiology BGYB31 Midterm Notes 1PART 1 PlantCell Structure How plants functionStructureFunctionResource AcquisitionGrowth and DevelopmentKingdom PlantaePlants and freshwater green algae have a common ancestor evolution of plants occurred in an aquatic environment chlorophyll a and bstarchcell walls with celluloseEvolutionary challenges for transition to landwater availabilitygravity mechanical rigidity particular cell typestissues evolved Major Classifications Within the Plant KingdomNonvascular plants eg Mosses lack xylem waterminerals phloem photosynthetic productsVascular plants have xylemphloem which are important as the plant gets largeranonseed eg fernsbseed plants seed consists of embryo stored starchproteinlipid to be used by germinating embryoigymnosperms eg conifers 750 speciesiiangiosperms the flowering plants 250000 have a more evolved transportvascular systemmonocotyledons embryo with single seed leafeudicotyledons two1Cell wall materials needed for making the cell wall are secreted outside the plasma membranecomplex polysaccharidesmiddle lamella between cell wallscontains substances that allow cells to stick togetherno cell migration proper plant development is dependent on plane of cell divisiondirection of cell enlargement2 wallssti1 wall thin found in young growing cellsallows cells to stretchexpandndii2 wall thickerstronger due to lignin found in mature cells cannot stretchexpand contains simple pits plasmodesmata which are connections between cells found ndbefore the 2 wall was laid2Plasma membrane fluid mosaic modelphospholipid bilayer 2 fatty acids glycerol phosphate head groupamphipathic hydrophobic hydrophilic partsunsaturated fatty acids have kinks due to double bonds allowing other components to move aroundplants are poikilotherms temperatures vary according to environmentmembrane fluidity changes by altering unsaturated saturated fatty acid ratio At colder temperatures unsaturated plastidsglycosylglyceride bilayer galactose head group digalactose sulfated galactose no phosphate proteins1integralembedded2peripheralnoncovalent surface attachment
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