Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Stephen Reid

Chapter 1Psychopathology the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behaviour thoughts and feelingsAbnormal Behaviour includes such characteristics as statistical infrequency violation of norms personal distress disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness Statistical InfrequencyAbnormal behaviour is infrequent in the general populationAn assertion that a person is normal implies that he or she does not deviate much from the average in a particular trait or behaviour patternThe statistical component gives us little guidance in determining which infrequent behaviours psychopathologists should study 1 Ex J Brett Barkleys alternating episodes of depression and mania occur in only about 1 of the population Violation of NormsAnother characteristic to consider is whether the behaviour violates social norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it 1 Ex Antisocial behaviour of psychopath OCD behaviour psychotic persons hallucinations 2 Ex J Brett Barkelys verbal and physical attacks on his wife illustrate this criterionCultural diversity can affect how people view social norms norm in one culture may be abnormal in another Personal DistressAnother characteristic is personal suffering behaviour is abnormal if it creates great distress and torment in the person experiencing it 1 Ex J Brett Barkleys selfconsciousness and distress about being evaluated illustrate this criterionBut some disorders do not necessarily involve distress ex Psychopath treats others coldheartedly Disability or DysfunctionDisability impairment in some important area of life work or personal relationships because of abnormality 1 Ex J Brett Barkleys disruption of marital relationship 2 Substanceuse disorders a phobia can produce both stress and disability UnexpectednessDistress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressorsEarly DemonologyDemonology the doctrine that an evil being such as the devil may dwell within a person and control hisher mind and bodyExorcism the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture 1 Usually took the form of elaborate prayers noisemaking forcing the afflicted to drink terrible tasting brews flogging and starvationTrepanning of skulls the making of a surgical opening in a living skull by some instrument 1 A way of treating epilepsy headaches and psychological disorders attributed to demonsSomatogenesisHippocratesSomatogenesis the notion that something wrong with the soma or physical body disturbs though and actionPsychogenesis is the belief that a disturbances has psychological originsHippocrates classified mental disorders into three categories mania melancholia and phrenitis brain fever
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