BGYC34 Assign 3.docx

10 Pages
264 Views

Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC34H3
Professor
Stephen Reid

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Description
BGYC34; Third Assignment (2010) PhysioEx Lab 7 (Respiratory System Mechanics) Introduction The goal of this lab was to stimulate spirometry and measuring the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, vital capacity, residual volume and lung capacity, using a pair of mechanical lungs. Furthermore, computer simulations were carried out to see the affects of various factors such as lung compliance, presence of surfactant and the presence or absence of injury in the thoracic walls that affect respiration. Surfactant is a lipid material secreted into the alveolar fluid, is another. Surfactant acts to decrease the surface tension of water in the fluid that lines the walls of the alveoli. Furthermore, presence of an injury in the thoracic walls would effectively raise the intrathoracic pressure to that of atmospheric pressure, preventing diaphragm contraction from decreasing intrathoracic pressure and, consequently, preventing air from being drawn into the lungs. Methods A trial run was carried out to measure the respiratory volumes through computer simulations prior to the start of the experiments. In order to measure normal respiratory volumes it was made sure that the radius of the air flow tube was at 5.00 mm by clicking the (-) or (+) buttons next to the radius display. The start button was clicked and the oscilloscope monitor was observed till the trace reached the 10-second mark on the monitor, the ERV button was then clicked to obtain the expiratory reserve volume. After 30 seconds the FVC button was clicked to obtain the forced vital capacity. Once the trace reached the end of the screen, the Stop button was clicked, proceeded by clicking Record Data. From the recorded data the minute respiratory volume was then calculated. Next the Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes simulation was carried out. The radius of the air flow tube was adjusted to 4.00 mm. The afore mentioned procedure to measure the normal respiratory volumes were carried out. Next the tracings were cleared and the radius of the air flow tube was lowered down to 3.50 mm proceeded by the steps carried to measure the normal respiratory volumes. Furthermore the radius was reduced to 3.00 mm proceeded by the steps carried to measure the normal respiratory volumes. The data was then printed. The data for FEV was recorded in table 1. Next, the effect of surfactant on respiratory volumes simulation was carried out. The radius of the air flow tube was set at 5.00 mm, and the Pump Rate was set at 15 strokes/minute. The start button was then clicked and the trace was allowed to sweep across the full length of the oscilloscope monitor. Data was recorded to obtain the control for the experimental runs. Next, Surfactant was clicked twice to add surfactant to the system and data was recorded. 1 Simulation for Effect of Thoracic Cavity Puncture was carried out. Flush was clicked to remove the surfactant. Airflow radius was set to 5.00 mm and pump rate to 15 strokes/min. Simulation was started and data was recorded as the baseline. “Valve closed” was then clicked and the experiment was started and recorded towards the end. Next, the simulation for rapid breathing was carried out. Radius was set to 5.00 mm and the experiment was started to conduct a baseline. The data was recorded and then started again and the “rapid breathing” button was clicked when the trace reached 10-second mark. The the PCO2 levels in the display windows were then observed. The trace was allowed to finish and the data was recorded. In order to observe the Rebreathing simulation, the afore mentioned steps were carried out and instead of clicking “rapid breathing”, the “rebreathing” button was clicked. Breath holding was stimulated by clicking start and conducting a baseline. Data was recorded. The experiment was started again but this time breath holding was clicked and when the trace reached the 10 sec mark the PCO2 levels were observed. At the 20 second mark, “Normal breathing” was clicked and the trace was allowed to finish. Data was recorded. Next, normal breathing simulation was carried out by clicking the experiment menu and selecting comparative spirometry. Normal option from the drop-down menu in the Patient Type box was selected. The patients breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing from the Breathing Pattern Option box. Experiment was started. When half the screen was filled with unforced tidal volumes and the trace had paused, the Forced Vital Capacity Button in the Breathing Pattern Options box was selected To observe the emphysema breathing patient’s breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing from the Breathing Pattern box. The experiment was started and the same steps as for the Normal breathing simulation were carried out. Next, Asthmatic from the drop-down menu in the Patient Type box was selected and patient’s breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing from the Breathing Pattern box. The experiment was started and the same steps as for the Normal breathing simulation were carried out. Next, Plus Inhaler from the drop-down menu in the Patient Type box was selected and the patient’s breathing pattern was set to Unforced Breathing from the Breathing Pattern box. The experiment was started and the same steps as for the Normal breathing simulation were carried out. Lastly, Moderate Exercise from the drop-down menu in the Patient Type box was selected and the experiment was started. Individual measure buttons were then clicked. Next heavy exercise was selected and the experiment was started and again the individual measure buttons were clicked. Results 2 RESPIRATORY VOLUMES Activity 2: Measuring Normal Respiratory Volumes (1 mark) Normal Respiratory Volumes Breathing Frequency: 15 breaths/minute Tidal Volume: 0.5 L Minute Ventilation: 7.5 L breath/minute Inspiratory Time: 2 second Expiratory Time: 2 second Activity 3: Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes (2 marks) Effect of Restricted Air Flow on Respiratory Volumes Forced Expiratory Volume Expressed as a Percentage of Vital Capacit
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit