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BIOC50H3 (15)
Chapter 13

chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Marc Cadotte

Chapter 13 Ecology Case study: Hapless cricket: walks to the edge of a body of water, jumps in and drowns, after drowning a hairworm parasite begins to emerge from the body of the cricket. The larva enters the crickets body and feeds on its tissues, growing from microscopic size into an adult that fills all of the crickets body cavity except its head and legs. When the larvae are fully grown, they must return to water, where adult males and females cluster in tight masses to mate. After mating, the next generation of larvae are released to the water where they will die unless theyre ingested by a terrestrial arthropod host. Enslaver parasites: fungal species that alter the perching behaviour of their fly hosts such in a way that their spores can be dispersed more easily. Rats typically engage in predator avoidance behaviours in areas that show signs of cats, but infected rats with the protozoan parasite: toxoplasma gondii behave abnormally towards cats (they do not avoid cats, and in some cases they are attracted to cats). This is a fatal attraction for the rat, but it benefits the parasite because it increases the chance that the parasite will be transmitted to the next host in its complex life cycle (the cat). Wasp (hymenoepicmecis argyraphaga manipulates its host, the orb-weaving spider (Plesiometa argyra) so precisely that shortly before killing the spider, the wasp larva induces the spider to make a special cocoon web This cocoon web looks dramatically different from the spiders web, and the larva kills the spider and eats it. The larva then spins a cocoon in which itll complete its development and hangs the cocoon from the web it induced the spider to make. The cocoon web serves as a strong support that protects the larva from being swept away by torrential rains. (Definitions of symbionts, parasite, host, and pathogens are in lecture slides). Parasites which constitute roughly of 50% of the species on Earth, typically feed on only one or a few host species. Pathogens are parasites. Parasites have negative effects: they harm but do not immediately kill their host (unlike predators). Our faces: home to mites that feed on exudates from the pores of our skin and secretions at the base of our eyelashes. Athletes foot: fungus. Leishmania trpoica can cause disfigurement. Yersinia pestis: plague. (Macroparasites andmicroparasites are in lecture) www.notesolution.com
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