Chapter 10 and 4 summary notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Chapter 10 10.4 - The comparative method - The comparative method seeks to evaluate hypotheses by testing for patterns across species, such as correlations among traits, or correlations between traits and features of the environment. - pattern shows as a bat species evolved larger roosting group sizes than its species -> also evolved larger testes for body size Chapter 4 - phylogeny: evolutionary history of a group of species - phylogenetic tree: graphical summary of this history 4.1 - The Logic of Phylogeny Inference - the most closesly related taxa should have the most traits in common - synapomorphy: homologous trait that is shared amongst certain species and is similar bc it was modied in a common ancestor - shared, derived trait - monophyletic groups are comprised of an ancestor and all of its descendents - e.g. all living organisms (shared genetic code) - bacteria + mammals = same monophyletic group, but each have synapomorphies that identify them as distinct monophyletic groups - all synapomorphies are homologous traits, but not all homologous traits are synapomorphies (can be identied @ all taxa levels) - 1. speciat
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