chapter 4

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Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

BGYB 51 Chapter 4 pg111119Estimating Evolutionary TreesThe evolutionary history of a group of species is called it phylogeny and a phylogenetic tree is a graphical summary of this history An evolutionary tree describes the patter and in some cases the timing of events that occurred as species diversified It also records the sequence in which lineages appeared and documents which organisms are more closely or distantly related41 The Logic of Phylogeny Inference y The most closely related taxa should have the most traits in common y Many types of characters could qualify the sequence of nucleotides in a particular gene the presence or absence of specific skeletal elements or flower parts or the mode of embryonic or larval developmenty Synapomorphies Identify Monophyletic Groups o The most fundamental principle of phylogeny inference is that only certain types of homologous characters are useful in estimating phylogenetic trees o A Synapomorphy is a homologous trait that is shared among certain species and is similar because it was modified in a common ancestorThey are shared derived traits o Any group that includes an ancestor and all of its descendants is called a monophyletic group or clade or lineageThis means all synapomorphies are homologous traits but
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