Chapter 1

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Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Chapter 1Understanding MonogamyPrairie vole is monogamoussingle sexual partner for an entire reproductive cycle or lifetimeOther voles are polygynousmany femalesPrairie voles are loaded with protein receptors that bind with vasopressinoVasopressin is produced and released when a vole copulates a number of times with a given femaleoVasopressin is carried to the ventral pallidum near the brain base and plays a role in providing rewarding sensationsWhen V1a receptors in ventral palladium is stimulated by vasopressin it triggers activitypositive feedbackIn males of polygynous vole species V1a receptors are less numerous so there is not the same type of durable social attachment feedback V1a receptor protein is encoded by the avpr1a geneoPrairie vole avpr1a gene has extra chunk of DNA in the same gene on other molesresponsible for abundance of vasopressin receptorsYoung added extra copies of avpr1a gene into ventral palladium of prairie voles which coded for more V1a receptors and noted stronger social bonds with female companionsavpr1a gene contributes to monogamous behaviouroGene in caudate putamen or extra lacZ gene in ventral palladium or caudate putamen has no effectWolff prairie voles who formed close attachment to a mate in the past had more decedents than polygynous volesoStaying with a female prevents copulation with other malesoLikely if population was sparseleaving 1 female would make it difficult to find anotheroUnder some conditionsmonogamy enhance male reproductive successPolygyny may have been the original mating system of volesoChange from polygyny to monogamy may have originated in ancestral species where males develop infanticidekilling pups sired by another male to produce his own pupsoFemales that mated with a male would benefit if males protected her against competitorsmate guardingMate guarding restricts mobilityprotecting pups may increase offspring successretained when success is achievedPolygynous maleInfanticidal malePromiscuous femalemate guarding malesparental malesmonogamousPhylogenyspecies which are closely related to each otheroPhylogenic trees are drawn by anatomical physiological or behavioural comparison amongst speciesmainly molecular comparisons
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