Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Chapter 3Development is an interaction of genetic with changing external environmentoGeneenvironmental interactionInteractive theory of developmentWorker beesoCare of larvaeoConstruct honeycomboRegulation of hive temperatureoDefense of colony against parasites and predatorsoCollection of pollen and nectarWorker bees change over time oclean comb cellsnurse bee feeding honeydistributor of foodforaging for pollen and nectargenotype genes and measurable characteristicsphenotypeWhitfield brain extracts of nurses and foragers to compare gene activityoDifferent product output of beesoGenetic changes contribute to developmental changes oMicroarray slides do not demonstrate that environment is irrelevantQueen bee pheromone causes changes in brain cells of workersworkers produce pheromone that changes gene expression of other workersoEnvironmental factors are important for gene expressionResultant geneenvironment product may play a role in changing the activity of one or more key genes to initiate a series of outputs that alter the development of the brain and behaviour of beeoJuvenile hormone found in nurse workers at low concentration but higher in foragerswhen young bees are treated with juvenile hormone they become foragersremoval of the corpora allata bee delays its transition to foraging hormone treatment can switch it back onDeficits in social encounters with older foragers may stimulate an early developmental transition from nurse to forageroHigher the foragers the lower proportion of nurse bees that transformAdding young bees have no effectInhibiting agent is a fatty acid compound called ethyl oleate which foragers manufactureNature or Nurture FallacyDNA in a gene is only expressed when the environment is appropriateoJuvenile hormone ethyl oleate influence gene activity in bees egBeahviour Development requires both genes and environment
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