Chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Maydianne Andrade

Chapter 13Cost of group livingoCompetition of foodoEnergetic and time cost of dominance interactions social statusSocial behavioursagnostic or submissive most of the timeDirect brood careegg cleaningTerritory maintenancedigging cleaning carryingoIncreased vulnerability to parasitesoIncreased risk of cuckoldry unfaithfuloIncreased risk of brood paratism andeg dumpingoIncrease conspiciousness of group to predationEgg dumpingcooperative brooders acorn woodpeckerso13 eggs destroyed ends when lay eggs on same day Benefits of group livingProtection against predatorsodilution effectsafety in numbers lower chance its you selfish herdovigilance birdsdistance to hawk when pigeon flees larger group flee earlier furtherogroup defense mobbing harassing potential predatorsprotect eggsdefending their young cooperation is not requiredpredicts that mobbing is intense when nesting is dense so protection is increasedIncreased information about foodoWatchingfollowing othersDeal with physical environmentoClusteringthermoregulation bats penguinsProtection food sources physical is all selfish behaviourSelfish herdmoving to center is a benefitImprove territory defenseImprove predation abilityCooperation favoured when it increases reproduction of genesoFuture offspring direct fitnessReciprocal altruism and mutualismoThrough kin indirectAltruismFavoured when environmental constraint reduce likelihood if independent successoHabitat saturationoShortage of matesInclusive fitnessdirectindirectTotal fitnessdirect kinindirect relativesoIncrease representation of alleles in the next generationMutualism fitness of actor and receipient
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