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Biological Sciences
Rudy Boonstra

Chapter 4We are currently in the quarternary ice agebegan 2 myaDoesnt feel like it cause were in the warm partinterglacialOligoscene btw 35 and 15 mya earths temp was 4 degrees warmer because more CO2 Major force of global climate came about by collision of Indian and asian plates 55 myaCaused an uplift to what became the Tibetan plateuPlateau increase affected global climate in 3 ways o Forces the reorganization of atmospheric circulation with the creation of the asian monsoon and associated climated patterns o Uplift caused ice to form in mountains and notwithstanding this ther were other albedo effects so reflecting more of suns energy o Increased erosion more silicate more calcium silicate reacting with co2 precipating in form of Calcium carbonateFirst indications of shift in stability happened 42 mya in Eocene More definite in Eocene Oligocene boundary 34 myaThe end Miocene c4 plant better advantage of lower CO2Although lowering of co2 over tertiary facilitated speciation and rise of c4 lowering co2 itself cant explain their global spread at end of Miocene o Maybe tectonic activity seasonal precipation Studied teeth opposed to soils because feeding enhances isotope signal soil more complex combines both c13 and c12 Results from cerling showed large mammals from before 8 mya ate c3 plants but by 6 mya many in sub tropics and tropics had c4 dietsPliocenelast epoch in tertiary period Global transition smaller ice sheets high sea levels warmDrake and Tasmanian passages continued to widen and tropical gateway linking pacific and atlantic ocean closed north and south American joinedthis affected heat transportation from tropics as global ocean circulation reorganizedMilankovitch orbital factors also affect amound of energy earth received btw hemisphersPliocene beringia vegetation supported populations of large mammals productive dry grassland forced a bridge btw NA and east asian landmass animals cross barrier btw pacific and arctic ocean preventing exchange of marine life tectonic separation of NA and east asian split beringia high sea levelCurrent Ice age Holocene is the current interglacialPletocene is the end of the last glacialAnthropocenetime from which humans had a discernable impact on global biosphereToday 15of ice free land is dominate by human use urban 55partly dominated agriculturally dominated landscape13 of terrestrial primary productivity fixed by photosyn is influenced by humansSo we cant say that we are currently in anthropocene
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