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Chapter 1

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Biological Sciences

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY- AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Chapter 1- Introduction to Physiology - Physiology; study of the normal functioning of a living organism and its component parts including all its chemical and physical processes. - Anatomy; study of structure. Both physiology and anatomy go hand in hand Physiological Systems - Atoms-molecules- cells-tissues-organs-organ systems-organisms-population of one species-ecosystems of different species-biosphere - Cell; smallest unit of structure capable of carrying out all life processes o Molecules are separated from external environment by barrier called cell membrane - Tissues; collections of cells that carry out related functions o Tissues form structural and functional units know as organs. - Group of organs combine their functions to make an Organ system - Integumentary System; composed of skin forms protective boundary which separates bodys internal environment from external environment (outside world) - Musculoskeletal system; provides support and body movement - Respiratory system; exchanges gases - Digestive system; takes up nutrients and water and eliminates waste - Urinary system; removes excess water and waste material - Reproductive system; produces eggs or sperms - Circulatory system; distributes materials by pumping blood through vessels - Nervous and Endocrine system; coordinate body functions o they are seen as 1 continuum not 2 different systems because the line is blurred - Immune system; protect internal environment from foreign invaders, positioned to intercept material that enter through the exchange surfaces or through a break in the skin (associated closely with circulatory system) Function and Process - Function of a physiological system is the why this happens? otherwise knows as the teleological approach (ex.why red blood cells transport oxygen ans. Because cells need oxygen and red blood cells transport it) - The physiological processes or mechanisms are the how this happens otherwise knows as the mechanistic approach (ex. How red blood cells transport oxygen ans. Oxygen binds to haemoglobin molecules in red blood cells) Homeostasis - In ancient and modern times many marine organisms rely on the constant external environments to keep their internal environment balance. o They cant resist many internal changes for example a change in pH or salinity www.notesolution.com
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