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BIOD27H3 (42)
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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

Chapter 3- Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues - Compartments separate biochemical processes that might otherwise conflict with one another. Ex. Protein synthesis takes place in one subcellular compartment while protein degradation is taking place in another. - Barriers between compartments can make it difficult to move needed materials from one compartment to another. - Ex. Of intracellular compartment lysosome, pH so acidic that if lysosome ruptures, it severely damages or kills the cell that contains it. - Cell is the functional unit of most living organisms Functional Compartments of the Body - the major human body cavities are the cranial cavity (skull), thoracic cavity (throat), and abdominopelvic cavity. o Cavities separated by bones and tissues, and are lined with tissue membranes o Cranial cavity; contains our brain the primary control center o Thoracic cavity; bounded by spine and ribs on top and sides, and muscular diaphragm forming the floor. Surrounds the heart (enclosed in a membranous sac and the 2 lungs), and in separate pleural sacs o Abdominopelvic cavity; abdomen and pelvis. Peritoneum lines the abdomen and surrounds the organ with it. Kidney lies outside the abdominal cavity, between peritoneum, and the muscles of the bone and back, just above waist level. Pelvis contains reproductive organs; urinary bladder, and terminal portion of large intestine - The Lumens of Some Organs Are Outside of the Body o Some hallow organs (such as heart, lungs, blood vessels, and intestines) create compartments within a body. The interior of a hollow organ is a lumen. o Filled partially of fully with air or fluid. Ex. Lumen of blood vessels filled with a fluid which is blood. o In some cases the lumen is an extension to the external environment, the lumen is not truly part of the internal environment. Ex. A bacteria just lives and reproduces in an intestine for example, it is not in the internal environment until the intestinal wall is punctured by a disease or accident and the bacteria enters a causes a serious infection. - Functionally, the Body has Three Fluid Compartments o The body fluid compartments are the extracellular (ECF) fluid outside of the cells and the intracellular fluid (ICF) inside the cells. o The ECF can be subdivided into interstitial fluid bathing the cells, lies between circulatory system and the cells and plasma which the fluid portion of the blood lies within the circulatory system and forms 1 extracellular compartment. o ICF and ECF separated by a barrier which is the cell membrane Biological Membrane - the word membrane used for both cell membranes (phospholipid-protein boundary layer) and for epithelial tissues that line a cavity or separate 2 compartments www.notesolution.com
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