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BIOD27H3 (42)
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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences

Chapter 12- Muscles - muscle generate motion force and heat - there are 3 types of muscle; skeletal cardiac and smooth muscle. Skeletal and cardiac muscle are striated muscles - skeletal muscles are controlled by somatic motor neurons. Cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are controlled by autonomic innervation, paracrines, and hormones. Some smooth and cardiac muscles are autorhhthmic and contrast spontaneously Skeletal Muscle - skeletal muscles are usually attached to bones by tendons. The origin is the end of the muscle attached closest to the trunk or to the more stationary bone. The insertion is the more distal or mobile attachment - at a flexible joint, muscle contraction moves the skeleton. Flexors bring bones closer together; extensors move bones away from each other. Flexor- extensory pairs are examples of antagonistic muscle groups - a skeletal muscle is a collection of muscle fibers, large cells with many nuclei - T-tubules allow action potentials to move rapidly into the interior of the fiber and release calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum - Myofibrils are intracellular bundles of contractile and elastic proteins. Thick filaments a
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