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Chapter 2

Chapter Notes for Chapter 2 of Human Physiology 5e

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Biological Sciences

Human Physiology (Fifth Edition) Silverthorn, D. U. Chapter 2 Molecular Interactions Chemistry Review Atoms: building blocks of all matter, composed of protons (+ charge), electrons (- charge), and neutrons (uncharged), most of an atoms volume is empty space The protons and neutrons of the atom are clustered in the nucleus, electrons, which are held in their orbits by their attraction to the protons, are contained in the space around the nucleus The Number of Protons in the Nucleus Determines the Element o Element: simplest type of matter o Atomic number of an atom is the number of protons in the nucleus, which specifies what element the atom is o Oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen make up more than 90% of the bodys mass o Major essential elements of the body: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur and chlorine o The body also requires trace amounts of other elements (i.e. selenium) o Atomic mass: total mass of protons and neutrons in the atom o Electrons are very light in comparison to protons and neutrons (1836 electrons = one neutron) Isotopes of an Element Contain Different Numbers of Neutrons o number of protons in an element is constant o isotopes: atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons, isotopes of a particular element have the same chemical properties (which depend on electron configuration, not proton numbers) o radioisotopes: unstable isotopes that emit radiation (alpha, beta, gamma) Electrons Form Bonds Between Atoms and Capture Energy o Arrangement of electrons in the outermost shell determines its binding abilities o Covalent bonds: atom bonding through electron sharing o Ions: atoms with an electric charge because of gainloss of electron(s) o High-energy electrons: electrons able to capture and transfer energy from their environment for synthesis, movement, other life processes o Free radicals: atoms with at least one unpaired electron who will try to steal an electron in order to become more stable, thought to contribute to aging and certain diseases chain of free radical production disrupts cell function o Antioxidants: substances that prevent damage to our cells by giving up electrons without becoming a free radical Molecular Bonds and Shapes Molecules: two or more atoms linked by sharing electrons, most molecules are compounds (contain more than one element) Bonds: transfer or sharing of electrons between atoms www.notesolution.com
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