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BIOD27H3 (42)
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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Study Guide

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOD27H3
Professor
A.Elia
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER 1 Physiology: Moving Beyond the Genome - biome ± entire community of organisms living in a major ecological region, such as the marine biome or the desert biome - genome ± all the genes in an organism - proteome ± all the proteins in that organism - metabolomics ± study of metabolic pathways - interactomics ± study of protein-protein interactions - Physiome Project o Organized international effort to coordinate molecular, cellular, and physiological information about living organisms into an Internet database o Is an ambitious undertaking that promises to integrate information from diverse areas of research so that we can improve our understanding of the complex processes we call life Physiology is an Integrative Science - integrate ± to bring varied elements together to create a unified whole - current challenge in physiology Æ integrating information from different body systems into a cohesive picture of the living human body - Emergent properties ± properties that cannot be predicted to exist based only on knowledgHRIWKHV\VWHP¶VLQGLYLGXDOFRPSRQHQWV o Not a property of any single component of the system and is greater than the VLPSOHVXPRIWKHV\VWHP¶VLQGLYLGXDOSDUWV o Eg Æ emotion, intelligence, and other aspects of brain functions ( these cannot be predicted from knowing the individual properties of nerve cells ) - One of the most intriguing and challenging aspects of learning physiology is developing skills that help you understand how the different organ systems work together. One way physiologists do this is by using 2 maps: o Schematic representation of structure or function ( Fig 1-5a ) o Second map diagrams a physiological process and is therefore referred to as a process map / flow chart ( Fig 1-5b ) - translational research ± applies the insights and results gained from basic biomedical research to treating and preventing human diseases o animal and human trials are essential steps in the process of applying basic research to treating or curing diseases Themes in Physiology - Four major themes in this book are: o Homeostasis and Control Systems  Homeostasis ± maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment  Control system has three components: x an input signal www.notesolution.com x a controller, which is programmed to respond to certain input signals x output signal o Biological Energy Use o Structure-Function Relationships  Molecular interactions ± ability of individual molecules to bind to or react with other molecules is essential for biological function, and this DELOLW\LVLQWLPDWHO\UHODWHGWRHDFKPROHFXOH¶VVWUXFWXUH  Compartmentation ± ( presence of separate compartments ) allows a cell, a tissue or an organ to specialize and isolate functions  Membranes separate cells from another and from the extracellular fluid, and create tiny compartments within the cell called organelles  Mechanical Properties of cells, tissues, and organs x Compliance ± ability to stretch x Elastance ± ability to return to the unstretched state x Strength, flexibility and fluidity o Communication  Signal transduction ± specialized mechanisms allow extracellular signal molecules to pass their message across the cell membrane without entering the cell  Gradient ± driving force, such as pressure or concentration difference The Science of Physiology - hypothesis ± logical guess about how an event takes place - UHYLHZ³6FLHQWLILF([SHULPHQWV´ www.notesolution.comCHAPTER 1 Physiology: Moving Beyond the Genome - biome entire community of organisms living in a major ecological region, such as the marine biome or the desert biome - genome all the genes in an organism - proteome all the proteins in that organism - metabolomics study of metabolic pathways - interactomics study of protein-protein interactions - Physiome Project o Organized international effort to coordinate molecular, cellular, and physiological information about living organisms into an Internet database o Is an ambitious undertaking that promises to integrate information from diverse areas of research so that we can improve our understanding of the complex processes we call life Physiology is an Integrative Science - integrate to bring varied elements together to create a unified whole - current challenge in physiology integrating information from different body systems into a cohesive picture of the living human body - Emergent properties properties that cannot be predicted to exist based only on knowledg0419K0889028L3L;L:,O.425430398 o Not a property of any single component of the system and is greater than the 8L25O08:2
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