study guide to: What is resting membrane potential

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Lecture 3 Mammilian physiology Chapter 5 notes and chapter 8 notes. K ions as well as negatively charged proteins are inside the cell (Higher K) Na ions and Cl ions are outside of the cell. (Higher Na) The inside of the cell is negatively charged compared to the extracellular (outside) which is positive. The reason for this is because some of the proteins in the inside of the cell dont have matching cations (+) and some cations in the outside (which has a net positive charge) dont have an anion to partner up with. therefore, due to the differences in charge, this creates an electrical disequilibrium (uneven distribution of electrons) more positive outside and more negatives inside; therefore there is no even amount to make it neutral: E.G. : 4 K in and 4 Na out= neutral. But with 4 K in and 5 Na out= electrical disequilibrium, no equal net charge. the input of energy to transport ions across the membrane creates an electrical gradient ( the difference in net charge between 2 ions) Im assuming its the kind of energy to make it go against its own gradient and chemical gradient goes along with it. combination of electrical and chemical gradient is called an electrochemical gradient. electrical gradient is the difference in charge between the intracellular and extracellular. It is also called RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (-70mv) or MEMBRANE POTENTIAL A voltmeter is used to measure the electrical difference (membrane potential versus time) between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell in volts or microvolt. The reference electrode is placed in the extracellular fluid (in the diagram, it is in a saline bath). It is assigned as the ground state or can be said as 0mv. recording electrode= inside the cell. K is mostly respon
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