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Chapter 8

BGYB30 chapter 8 textbook notes

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Biological Sciences

MAMMILIAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 8 Neurons: Cellular and Network Properties Emergent Properties: Complex processes, such as consciousness, intelligence, emotion, that cannot be predicted from the properties of individual nerve cells The nervous system can be divided into two parts: The central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord; CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (afferentsensory neurons and efferent neurons; PNS) Efferent neurons can also be divided into two subgroups: somatic motor division (controls skeletal muscles) and autonomic division (controls smoothcardiac muscles, exocrine and some endocrine glands, as well as adipose tissue) The autonomic division, also called the visceral nervous system, is further subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches The nervous system is composed primarily of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells Neurons www.notesolution.comNeurons are the functional unit of the nervous system; they consist of dendrites (which receive incoming signals), a cell body (called the soma where the nucleus of the cell is found), and the axon (which carries outgoing signals) Neurons can be classified structurally, based on the presence or lack of axons and dendrites 1. Pseudounipolar: A neuron where the axon and the dendrite fuse during development. They are both found on the same single body. The soma is to the side of the dendriteaxon fuse 2. Bipolar: There is a single, separate axon and a separate dendrite on the neuron. Both are about the same length and are separated by the cell body 3. Multipolar: There are many branched dendrites and axons on the neuron 4. Anaxonic: There is no distinguishable axon on the neuron Axons can also be functionally classified: 1. Sensory (afferent): Neurons that carry information about temperature, pressure, light, etc. www.notesolution.com
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