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Chapter 10

BGYB30 Chapter 10 textbook notes

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Biological Sciences

MAMMILIAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 10 Sensory Physiology Special Senses: Include vision, hearing, smell, taste, equilibrium Somatic Senses: include touch, temperature, pH, itch, proprioception (the awareness of body movement and position in space mediated by sensory receptors in muscles and joints) General Properties of Sensory Stimulation All sensory pathways begin with a physical stimulus that acts on a receptor. The receptor acts as a transducer and converts the stimulus to an intracellular signal. If it is above the threshold, it is transferred to the CNS where it is integrated either consciously or unconsciously Sensory receptors vary in complexity. The most basic, simplest receptor is the neuron with naked (free) nerve endings (i.e. somatosensory receptors). In the complex ones, the nerve endings are encased in connective tissue The most complex type of sensory receptor is that of the special senses. All of them except for smell use non-neuronal receptor cells that synapse onto secondary neurons (smell goes straight to the brain through one of the cranial nerves) When activated, they release neurotransmitters that initiate action potentials that send www.notesolution.cominformation to the brain Non-neuronal accessory structures are very important to help receptors. I.e. the cornea of the eyes help focus light for photoreceptors; the hairs on ones arm help sense movement of air close to skin. These attributes enhance information gathering Receptors are divided into 4 major groups: 1. Chemoreceptors: respond to chemical ligands that bond to receptors. I.e. taste, smell 2. Mechanoreceptors: Respond to various types of mechanical energy. I.e. pressure, vibrations, acceleration, sound (i.e. hearing) 3. Thermoreceptors: Respond to temperature 4. Photoreceptors: Respond to light Transduction The first step of converting physical stimuli into an electrical one is transduction (conversion of stimulus energy into information that can be processed by the nervous www.notesolution.com
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